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وثائقي جياد الحرب Horses in warfare

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جياد الحرب
الحصان هو حيوان ثديي وحيد الحافر، من الفصيلة الخيلية، يستعمل للركوب وللجر. وله أنواع متعددة، تتفاوت فيما بينها تفاوتاً كبيراً في الشكل والحجم والسرعة والقدرة على التحمل فمنها: الحصان العربي والحصان الإنجليزي والحصان المهجن الأصيل بين العربي والإنجليزي والمخصص لسباقات الأرض المنبسطة (بالإنجليزية: Flat Racing) الأشهر في العالم والحصان البربري.
عرف الإنسان الحصان منذ العصر الحجري واعتمد المؤرخون على ظهوره وفترة تحديدها بالنسبة للرسوم الصخرية التي سجلت صور للأحصنة. تم توافد الخيول من أسيا من قبل البدو حيث يعتقد بأنهم أول من استأنسها ثم نقلوها إلى الصين فآسيا الصغرى وأوروبا وسوريةوالبلاد العربية ومصر، ومن الشعوب التي اشتهرت بذلك الجرمنت بليبيا ويعتبر اقتناء الخيل والاهتمام بها في الماضي مظهراً من مظاهر القوة والجاه والسلطان، وكان للخيل الدور الهام في حياة العرب. و لكن لم يكن ترويض الحصان لدى الإنسان القديم ممكناً حتى تمكن من ابتكار بعض الأدوات ومنها أدوات الصيد النافعة و الرائعة.
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago. The earliest evidence of horsesridden in warfare dates from Eurasia between 4000 and 3000 BC. A Sumerian illustration of warfare from 2500 BC depicts some type of equine pulling wagons. By 1600 BC, improved harness and chariotdesigns made chariot warfare common throughout the Ancient Near East, and the earliest written training manual for war horses was a guide for training chariot horses written about 1350 BC. As formal cavalrytactics replaced the chariot, so did new training methods, and by 360 BC, the Greek cavalry officerXenophon had written an extensive treatise on horsemanship. The effectiveness of horses in battle was also revolutionized by improvements in technology, including the invention of the saddle, the stirrup, and later, the horse collar.
Many different types and sizes of horse were used in war, depending on the form of warfare. The type used varied with
Horses were well suited to the warfare tactics of the nomadic cultures from the steppes of Central Asia. Several East Asian cultures made extensive use of cavalry and chariots. Muslim warriors relied upon light cavalry in their campaigns throughout North Africa, Asia, and Europe beginning in the 7th and 8th centuries AD. Europeans used several types of war horses in the Middle Ages, and the best-knownheavy cavalry warrior of the period was the armoured knight. With the decline of the knight and rise of gunpowder in warfare, light cavalry again rose to learned by several tribes of indigenous people and in turn, highly mobile horse regiments were critical in the American Civil War.
Horse cavalry began to be phased out after World War I in favour of tank warfare, though a few horse cavalry units were still used into World War II, especially as scouts. By the end of World War II, horses were seldom seen in battle, but were still used extensively for the transport of troops and supplies. Today, formal battle ready horse cavalry units have almost disappeared, although horses are still seen in use by organised armed fighters in Third World countries. Many nations still maintain small units of mounted riders for patrol and reconnaissance, and military horse units are also used for ceremonial and educational purposes. Horses n
A memorial to the horses that served in the Second Boer War.
While many statues and memorials have been erected to human heroes of war, often shown with horses, a few have also been created specifically to honor horses or animals in general. One example is theHorse Memorial in Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.[201] Both horses and mules are honored in the Animals in War Memorial in London's Hyde Park.rider that was identical to those awarded to British troops A Dickin Medal, an animals' equivalent of the Victoria Cross, awarded by thePeople's Dispensary for Sick Animals charity in the United Kingdom to three horses that served in World War II.[202]
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